subject: AANEWS for January 19, 1997 (Weekend Edition) A M E R I C A N A T H E I S T S A A
from: AMERICAN ATHEISTS
subject: AANEWS for January 19, 1997 (Weekend Edition)
A M E R I C A N A T H E I S T S
~~ A A N E W S ~~
#233 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1/19/97 (Weekend Edition)
In This Issue...
* More Public $$$ For Religious Schools?
* Religious Groups Threaten Hebron Pact
*Theistwatch: Superstition Leads To Fear of Penis-Snatchers!
* About This List...
SUPREME COURT TO REHEAR AGUILAR v. FELTON
A Key Precedent In State-Church Separation May Suffer -- And The Public
Could End Up Financing Private Religious Schools!
The United States Supreme Court has announced that it will reconsider a
controversial 1985 ruling which prohibits the use of public school
instructors in private religious academies. The original case, AGUILAR v.
FELTON (1985) stems from a dispute involving Title 1 of the U.S. Elementary
and Secondary Education Act, which called upon public schools to offer
"remedial services" to certain students, including those in private
institutions. Justice William J. Brennan Jr. who wrote the majority opinion
in AGUILAR noted that the Act was "well intentioned," it violated the First
Amendment in that government must not "promote or hinder" religious exercise.
He added that the program conveyed "a message of state support for religion
to students and the general public."
Twelve years later, the high court will once again be examining its
decision in this landmark case. Only one member of the 1985 court majority,
Justice John Paul Stevens, remains on the bench; and observers note that foes
of the AGUILAR v. FELTON decision may include five of the current Supreme
Court justices. Indeed, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist is on record as
dismissing Justice Brennan's First Amendment concerns as "gossamer
abstractions." The Chief Justice has also agreed with religious
anti-separation opponents that the "Wall of Separation" discussed by Thomas
Jefferson is simply a "myth" that has no basis in history or jurisprudence.
Justice Anthony Kennedy has expressed disagreement with the AGUILAR ruling
as well, saying that Brennan's original opinion was "unfortunate." And
Justice Antonin Scalia has written that in his opinion, the court's ruling in
the 1985 case was "so hostile" to religious belief that it should be
"overruled at the earliest opportunity."
It is rare that the Supreme Court re-examines a decision, or overturns
earlier rulings. The move to rehear the arguments in AGUILAR was in response
to petitions from New York City school officials, parents of parochial school
students, and the Clinton administration which filed an amicus ("friend of
the court") brief.
Circumventing Aguilar v. Felton
Although the intent of the AGUILAR ruling was to strengthen state-church
separation and establish boundaries between public and private religious
institutions, many government officials began constructing expensive,
disingenuous schemes to circumvent the decision. The 1985 case ordered New
York to stop sending public school teachers into parochial schools in order
to instruct students in remedial subjects such as math and reading. Even so,
officials and the state and municipal level have promoted various voucher
programs and other schemes which not only threaten the integrity of the
public schools, but the entire notion of state-church separation. Last
September, for instance, New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani gushed with approval
over a proposal from the Roman Catholic Archdiocese to have the city's
parochial school system take over the education of up to 1,000 public school
students. The New York Times observed that this plan "raised serious
questions about the separation of church and state, the control that public
school officials would have over the teaching standards and curriculums in
parochial schools, and the ability of those schools to be sensitive to a
religiously diverse group of public school children."
Another scheme for circumventing AGUILAR v. FELTON has been to use state
funds for teachers, classrooms and other facilities, but then have students
from religious schools be transported at public expense to these taxpayer
funded programs. In some cases, students would walk out of a Jewish or Roman
Catholic religious school, across the street to special mobile-classrooms
staffed by public instructors and financed with public funds. By one
estimate, this "indirect subsidy" for religious schools has cost up to $100
million. Last year alone in New York City, $16 million was budgeted for such
programs which serve 12,000 parochial school students in more than 100 mobile
Thanks to such schemes, about the only substance left in AGUILAR is the
fact that public school teachers do not physically enter religious school
buildings, and that government monies are not directly handed to parochial
Beyond AGUILAR -- A Wider Agenda
AGUILAR v. FELTON is considered a key ruling on state-church separation,
since it deals with cases of direct financial involvement between government
and religious institutions. A reversal of the court's 1985 decision could
result in a flood of new schemes at the federal, state and local levels to
direct public monies into the coffers of religious educational institutions.
Already, several states are ready to float voucher initiatives; a ruling
last week in Wisconsin which found vouchers to be a violation of that state's
constitutional guarantees on state-church separation will probably be
appealed. When and if the voucher question does reach the Supreme Court, a
reversal in AGUILAR is surely to be argued as precedent.
Incredibly, both New York City officials and the Clinton Administration
lawyers agreed that a range of taxpayer-funded educational services could and
should be provided in religious schools without aiding religion, or involving
government in "excessive entanglement" with religious belief. U.S. Solicitor
General Walter Dellinger even argued in an amicus brief for the Clinton White
House that the 1985 AGUILAR v. FELTON decision actually hurt the public
school system by curtailing its program to serve low income students with
Arguments are expected to be heard in April, with a decision rendered
sometime by July.
WILL RELIGIOUS GANGS TORPEDO HEBRON AGREEMENT?
Both Likud And The PLO Face Opposition From Religious Sects, Parties. A
Tenuous Peace Arrangement Is Threatened...
Celebrations still continue in the city of Hebron where Israeli military
forces have pulled back, and control of the region has shifted to the
Palestinian Authority. The arrangement follows months of covert and public
peace negotiations, and behind-the-scenes maneuvering by diplomats from the
U.S. and the United Nations. And it is a tenuous peace at best, one that
skirts fundamental issues such as statehood for Palestinians and the status
of the "Holy City" of Jerusalem. The Hebron agreement is also opposed by
religious extremists in both Israel and the Arab sector. It is not known how
it will affect the fortunes of PLO chief Yasir Arafat, or Israel's Prime
Minister Benjamin Netanyahu; nor is anyone betting on the ability of Arafat's
new quasi-government to control fundamentalist Islamic groups which already
are lining up to oppose the Hebron Treaty.
* Despite its political symbolism and practical results as a concrete step
toward peace, the militant Islamic Hamas movement has condemned the agreement
as proof "that the last and highest word remains in the hands of the Israeli
army. Hamas, a fundamentalist movement which has prospered in the squalid
living conditions of Israeli operated detention camps and prisons, is
responsible for the bulk of attacks on local Jewish settlers. But there
appears to be a wait-and-see attitude on the part of at least some Hamas
supporters. On Wednesday night, Israeli military commanders seem to have
struck a temporary accord with the Young Muslims Association, which is
affiliated with Hamas.
* Other groups with ties to Syrian military intelligence or the
fundamentalist regime in Iran intend to oppose the Hebron accord. Criticism
has come from the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Hezbollah, an
Iranian-controlled formation, has already condemned Arafat for making what it
calls "humiliating concessions."
* Netanyahu also faces opposition from extreme Jewish fundamentalists,
although some of the religious parties reluctantly endorsed the Hebron Treaty
in a closed-door cabinet meeting. The National Religious Party deliberately
abstained from the final voting, but announced that it will now reconsider
its participation in the Likud coalition government every three months.
But even within the ranks of Netanyahu's own Likud Party there was
dissent. Party patriarch Yitzhak Shamir called for a new leader, and blasted
the Prime Minister for "betrayal of the idea of Greater Israel." The leader
of another religious group, Women in Green, said that her organization would
"take to the streets" in opposition to the government they helped to elect
just eight months ago.
* The most bitter faction seems to consist of Israeli settlers who already
provide considerable support for the nation's religious fundamentalist
groups. The Los Angeles Times notes that in the period leading up to his
assassination, the former Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin had "many verbal and
political clashes" with settler groups; posters appeared depicting Rabin
wearing the kaffiyeh (Arab headdress) and calling him a "traitor" and
"murderer." Now, posters with the same theme are showing up, only this time
bearing the visage of Benjamin Netanyahu.
An opinion poll in the daily newspaper Yediot Aharonot on Thursday showed
that 67% of Israelis were "satisfied" with the Hebron agreement, while 25%
were opposed. 56% said that they continue to support withdrawal of Israeli
military forces from the West Bank. And one perception of Netanyahu --
especially widespread within the ranks of his Likud party and coalition -- is
that the new Prime Minister has moved in the direction set by the previous
Rabin government, although at a slower pace.
Religious fundamentalists in Likud and other allied groups are now
searching for a new leader who will achieve the "Eretz Yisrael" -- a
Biblical-era Jewish religious state stretching from the Jordan River to the
Mediterranean. Some look to Binyamin Begin, described in the Los Angeles
Times as a "right-wing ideologue" who ironically served as Minister of
Science and Technology before resigning last week in protest over the Hebron
agreement. Son of the late Prime Minister Menachem Begin, he told Israeli
Radio last week that he was leaving the Netanyahu government because "it is
impossible on my part to be a partner in handing over parts of our land."
At best, Hebron is a first, problematic step. Netanyahu faces opposition
from the religious right; fundamentalist groups can be expected to apply even
more pressure when talks resume over more substantive issues like the West
Bank settlements and control of Jerusalem. During debate in the Knesset,
ministers of the National Religious Party echoed the sentiments of member
Hanan Porat who declared that "We will arise and we will build Hebron and the
Land of Israel...You will not defeat us so quickly."
And Arafat has problems of his own. Barring an agreement between Israel
and Syria over issues like the Golan Heights, expect the Syrian Intelligence
Service to continue support fundamentalist religious groups and extreme
organizations like PFLP. Religious extremists in Hamas can also be expected
to criticize Arafat for "compromising" with the Israelis. Expect plenty of
misinformation and "black propaganda" on both sides.
The Disinformation War
That phase of political warfare has possibly started, at least in
connection with the Hebron agreement. There were substantial reports in the
international press over the last two months concerning warnings made to
Netanyahu by his security services, including Shin Bet. One assessment noted
that continued support of settlements was ultimately inflaming passions in
the Arab community, and weakening the ability of Yasir Arafat to control the
extreme religious fundamentalists.
But on Friday, a report surfaced in the right-wing Washington Times, a
newspaper linked to Rev. Moon. Titled "Israelis fear Arafat ready for war,"
the article advanced the astounding and unsubstantiated thesis that Arafat
has "gained control of Hamas and is ready for a military confrontation." The
paper claimed that "Israel's intelligence chiefs are going through a
revolutionary reassessment of the Palestinian Authority president, concluding
that they and Israel's political leaders have dangerous underestimated him,"
Quoting Jerusalem Report correspondent Ehud Ya'ari and unidentified
"political and intelligence sources in Israel," the article challenged the
traditional thesis that Arafat had faced serious challenges from Islamic
If anything, both military and intelligence agencies in Israeli have seen
it in the country's self-interest to begin a dialogue with Palestinians, and
reach some kind of a workable accord. That process has now resulted in a
Hebron agreement which seriously alienates the extreme Islamic and Jewish
religious groups; their future of their respective agendas can rest only in
the breakdown of the peace process through distrust, suspicion and eventually
THEISTWATCH SHORT SHOTS
Is there any aspect of life that religious zealots are content to leave
untouched? Probably not. Even the local community argot is target for
concern and experimentation, at least in the community of Kingsville, Texas.
Last week, Kleberg County commissioners voted unanimously for a resolution
urging the use of "heaven-o" instead of "hello" in greetings.
We're serious. And we didn't get this item from the Weekly World News.
The idea for this wretched intrusion of religious-correctness came from a
local flea market operator who, according to CNN, thought it "sinister" that
the root of the word hello was "hell." "He (Leonso Canales) has led a
three-year campaign to get the county to remove the offensive word," says
Cable News. A local county judge said that everyone in town was "a little
apprehensive," but mused: "I suppose it's like everything else, once you get
adjusted to it, you might start using it."
According to the Oxford English Diction (Compact Edition), "Hello" has
nothing to do with hell, but instead is a variation of "Hallo", which in turn
stems from "Hollo." Another variant is "Halloo," and the OED defined these
terms as cries made to attract the attention of a ferryman, or "a shout or
exclamation to call attention." The term "hell" has an entirely different
history of derivation, and none of the forms of that term seem to have
anything to do with greeting someone, soliciting the services of a ferryman,
or being an appropriate greeting to friend or stranger in Texas!
Along with poverty, war and the legacy of 19th century imperialism, one of
the great obstacles in the emergent nations of the Third World is religious
superstition. Tribal-mystical traditions in many nations have kept women
from gaining equality, resisted the spread of education, and even emerged as
an obstacle to health care reform and the war on diseases like AIDS. But
sometimes, the manifestation of religious superstition is even more basic and
On Friday in Accra, Ghana, police arrested four people in connection with
a mob beating where two men were assaulted and killed after being accused of
being sorcerers and "penis snatchers." Phobia of "penis snatching" has
become rampant in parts of Africa; and this latest incident involved claims
that the men could cause a male's penis to disappear simply through the act
of shaking hands. There were also charges that women could have their
breasts shrunken. According to Associated Press, fear of the penis snatchers
is becoming widespread in Ghana "where belief in witchcraft and supernatural
powers is strong."
(Thanks to Wayne Aiken for this "interesting"
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