By-Laws of Ar nDraiocht Fein: A Druid Fellowship, Inc. As of Feb., 1993 c.e. (Plus a few u

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컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 By-Laws of Ar nDraiocht Fein: A Druid Fellowship, Inc. As of Feb., 1993 c.e. (Plus a few unofficial notes on by-law changes since.) Preamble: 1) Ar nDraiocht Fein: A Druid Fellowship, Inc., also known as "A.D.F.," is the legal structure for a Neopagan Druidic religion based on the beliefs and practices of the ancient Indo-Europeans, adapted to the needs and sensibilities of modern people. We are a nonprofit religious, scientific, educational, artistic, and charitable corporation, organized to practice the full spectrum of legal activities practiced by any religious organization. 2) As we define it, Neopagan Druidism is a polytheistic, nondualist, nonsexist, nonracist, scientific, holistic, and ecologically oriented faith. We are dedicated to the preservation of our Holy Mother Earth, the full achievement of human potential, the revival of the worship of the Old Gods in a modern context, and the creation of a world of peace, love, freedom, health, and prosperity for all intelligent beings. 3) The following by-laws are intended to help us achieve these ideals and all future by-laws and amendments shall be similarly intended. Article 1: Purposes 1) To accomplish the goals outlined in the Preamble, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, many sciences, arts, and disciplines, both mainstream and alternative, within a nondogmatic, pluralistic context, in order to change ourselves, each other, and the world around us. 2) Since one of the primary duties of the ancient Druids was to lead their tribes in magical and religious activities, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, open, inclusionary, and public ceremonies to worship the Earth Mother and the Old Gods and Goddesses, rites of passage to mark the cycles of our lives, and magical rituals to accomplish our other goals in an honest and ethical manner. 3) Since the ancient Druids were the intellectuals of their tribes, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, scientific and scholarly research and debate about the ancient Druids, the Indo-Europeans, comparative religion, folklore, ethnomusicology, and every other relevant field of human knowledge. 4) In keeping with our reverence for and worship of the Earth Mother, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, ecological and environmental research, education, and activism. 5) Since the ancient Druids were the artists of their tribes, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, a wide variety of auditory, graphic, movement, dramatic, liturgical, and other arts and crafts. 6) Since the ancient Druids included many healers in their ranks, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, the investigation, dissemination, and performance of a wide variety of healing arts and technologies, both mainstream and alternative, including herbal, nutritional, mental, magical, and spiritual methods, among others; advising all parties concerned as to the presence or absence of appropriate credentials as required by civil law. 7) Since the ancient Druids included diviners in their ranks, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, the use of the divinatory arts and sciences as tools for spiritual counseling and liturgical guidance; advising all parties concerned as to the presence or absence of appropriate credentials as required by civil law. 8) Since the ancient Druids included counselors, mediators, and judges in their ranks, A.D.F. advocates and practices, as an integral part of our faith, the investigation, dissemination, and performance of a wide variety of counseling arts and methods, both mainstream and alternative, as well as techniques of mediating disputes and judging conflicts between organizations and/or individuals in the Neopagan community; advising all parties concerned as to the presence or absence of appropriate credentials as required by civil law. Article 2: Offices 1) The principal office of the Corporation shall be located in the City of Newark, County of New Castle, in the State of Delaware, USA. The Corporation may have other such offices, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the Directors may designate or the business of the Corporation may require from time to time. Article 3: Calendar 1) The eight High Days of the Druidic calendar, as referenced in these by-laws and all legal documents of A.D.F., are as follows: Samhain, Winter Solstice, Oimelc, Spring Equinox, Beltane, Summer Solstice, Lughnasadh, and Fall Equinox. 2) For legal purposes, each High Day shall commence at sunset in Delaware on the days preceding the following dates: Samhain = Nov. 1st, Winter Solstice = Dec. 21st, Oimelc = Feb. 1st, Spring Equinox = March 21st, Beltane = May 1st, Summer Solstice = June 21st, Lughnasadh = Aug. 1st, and Fall Equinox = Sept. 21st. 3) For ceremonial purposes, however, each High Day may be celebrated upon either the legal date, the astronomical date, or upon a date mutually convenient to the participants of the particular celebrations involved. 4) Since the Druidic year traditionally runs from one Samhain to the next, the legal and ceremonial Druidic years shall run according to the legal and ceremonial dates for Samhain described previously in this article. 5) The fiscal year of the Corporation shall begin on the first day of January and end on the thirty-first day of December in each civil year. Article 4: Categories of Membership 1) "Regular," "Supporting," and "Sustaining" members of A.D.F. are those individuals paying an annual amount of dues to be determined by the Mother Grove, and who are entitled to receive all A.D.F. publications meant for the general membership. 2) "Family" members are those individuals, annually paying a lesser amount than regular dues, who reside with regular members and who are relatives, spouses, or unmarried partners to them. They will not receive separate mailings of most A.D.F. publications. 3) "Lifetime" members are those individuals making large donations of money or service to A.D.F., as shall be determined by the Mother Grove. They are entitled to receive all A.D.F. publications meant for the general membership, and shall be considered current with their dues for the rest of their lives. 4) "Prisoner" members are those individuals currently incarcerated in correctional institutions, who may pay a lesser amount than the regular dues. They are entitled to receiveall A.D.F. publications meant for the general membership, except that the Membership Directory and other publications which the Mother Grove may decide constitute a violation of privacy or risk for the general membership if exam ined within the prison system shall be withheld. Prisoners may not run for office, except within a local prison-based grove. 5) "Exchange Editor" members are those individuals, annually paying a lesser amount than regular dues, who publish periodicals with which A.D.F. has an exchange subscription arrangement. Like family members, they will not receive separate mailings of most A.D.F. publications. 6) "Complimentary" members are those individuals whom the Mother Grove has decided should receive mailings of the general A.D.F. publications in order to keep them informed of our activities, and who pay no dues at all. They may not be voting members and may not run for office. 7) From time to time the Mother Grove may institute other categories of membership, including combinations of categories, and shall define their characteristics as needed. 8) Children under the age of l8 must have the signed and notarized permission of at least one parent or legal guardian in order to become a member of A.D.F., unless the Mother Grove shall rule otherwise. Article 5: The Voting Members 1) "Voting" members, also known as the "members of record," are those members of A.D.F. who: (a) belong to one of the dues-paying categories listed in the preceding sections of this article; (b) are up to date with their A.D.F. membership dues; and (c) have not resigned from A.D.F., nor been expelled. 2) Each voting member shall have one vote, plus one additional vote for each full, continuous year that he or she remains a voting member. 3) A gap of more than three months from the expiration of membership to renewal shall constitute a discontinuity of membership, except as the Mother Grove may decide otherwise. 4) Except as may be noted elsewhere in these by-laws, all references to voting by the voting members assume these multiple votes. 5) Except as otherwise mentioned in these by-laws, a quorum for voting purposes shall consist of those voting members representing twenty-five percent of the total number of votes available to be cast. 6) Proxy votes may be assigned to voting members who are to be present at an annual or special meeting, through the signing of the proxy statements issued by the Mother Grove, and are valid only for the annual or special meeting marked thereon. 7) If election or referundum choices are combined with a proxy statement, the person receiving the proxy must cast those votes given him or her according to any electoral choices marked on the combined ballot/proxy statement. If a given member sending in such a proxy has not made any such electoral choices, the person receiving the proxy may cast those votes according to his or her best judgement. 8) Voting members may attend annual or special meetings via electronic communications devices if such are available. Article 6: The Annual Meeting 1) The annual meeting of the voting members of A.D.F. shall be held during the annual International Druid Festival, the time of which shall be decided by the membership at the previous annual meeting. 2) There shall be mailed to each voting member at her or his last known address, by first class mail or overseas airmail, at least six weeks prior to the annual meeting, a notice setting out the time and place of the annual meeting, and including a combined proxy statement and ballot to be signed by those voting members so desiring. Said notice and proxy/ballot may be incorporated into an A.D.F. newsletter published at the appropriate time, which must be mailed out by first class mail or overseas air. 3) In case a quorum is not present in body or proxy at the annual meeting, those present may adjourn to such a day and time as a majority shall agree upon. If said day and time is within the current International Druid Festival, verbal notice to those voting members present at the I.D.F. shall suffice, and the necessary quorum shall drop to ten percent of the total membership vote. Otherwise, notice of such adjournment shall be mailed to each voting member of A.D.F. at least 21 days before said date and 4) Alternately, if a quorum is not present at the annual meeting, those present may decide by majority vote to hold the annual meeting without binding votes upon any subject other than the election of a new Members Advocate, who may be elected as described elsewhere in these by-laws. If the office of Archdruid is up for election at that time, this election shall take place as well, as described elsewhere in these by-laws. 5) If a quorum is present, elections for all Officerships open shall be held as described elsewhere in these by-laws. Article 7: Special Meetings & Referunda 1) A special meeting or a referendum of the voting members may be called by the request of a majority of the Mother Grove, or by a petition representing one-third of the membership votes. Such a special meeting shall be held sixty to ninety days after the Board meeting at which such request or petition is received, at a location to be selected by the Mother Grove. Notice of such a special meeting, stating its particular purpose, shall be mailed to the voting members as with the annual meeting, including the provision of proxy statements. 2) The Mother Grove may decide to hold a referendum through the mails at any time, and such referendum may be instead of a special meeting, should the topics under consideration lend themselves to such treatment. Ballots for a referendum shall be mailed out with the next issue of the A.D.F. newsletter, which shall include brief arguments presenting all sides of the topics involved. Voting shall be considered to be closed sixty days after the issue has been mailed. Article 8: Elections of Officers and Directors 1) At the annual meeting held in 1993 c.e., all Officers, except the Archdruid, shall stand for re-election. At that and every third following annual meeting, the voting members shall vote to fill all expiring Officerships in the Mother Grove and may choose to add Non-Officer Directors to the Board as well. 2) At every annual meeting the voting members shall elect, by simple majority vote of those participating, with no quorum required, a Members' Advocate who shall thus be elected to the Mother Grove as well. 3) Nominations to the Board may be made by the standing Board, as well as by any group of twenty or more voting members or any group of voting members having a total of fifty or more votes, who shall sign a petition nominating a qualified candidate, and submit said petition at least sixty days before the elections are to be held. 4) Any voting member of A.D.F., save a prisoner, may run for election as a Officer or Non-Officer Director, or be selected as a Non-Officer Director. All candidates must have passed their 18th birthdays and fulfill the requirements for office listed elsewhere in these by-laws. 5) After verification of membership status of all candidates and nomination signatories by the Registrar, the names of the candidates shall be published, along with brief statements by the candidates (if provided), in the ADF newsletter. 6) Brief rebuttals (if desired), as well as ballots, shall be mailed to all voting members along with proxy statements, six weeks prior to the elections. Such mailing may be combined with an issue of the ADF newsletter. 7) Plurality of votes cast for a given Office shall be sufficient to elect an Officer other than the Archdruid. Non-Officer Directors shall be elected by receiving at least 25% of all votes available to be cast. [Note: in 5/93, this last sentence was modified to omit "available to be".] 8) Any member may split his/her available votes between the various candidates for any given Office. Any member may split his/her available votes between the various candidates who wish to become 9) Should there be no quorum achieved for the elections (which shall be defined as being the same as for the annual meeting), by presence or proxy, then all incumbent candidates shall be deemed to have been re-elected. 10)At the end of every tri-annual election, after all Officers and Non-Officer Directors (if any) have been elected, and before the annual meeting is finally adjourned, the Archdruid-elect or continuing Archdruid may select one or more voting members as Non-Officer Directors to join those Officers elected in the Mother Grove. 11)All Directors, whether elected or selected, shall exercise equal powers and responsibilities, save as otherwise noted in these by-laws. 12)Missing three consecutive Mother Grove meetings, whether regular or special, shall constitute an offer of resignation from the Mother Grove by that Director. The rest of the Mother Grove may accept or decline that offer. 13)In the case of the death, expulsion, resignation, or permanent incapacitation of any Director or Officer other than the Members Advocate or the Archdruid, who shall be replaced as described elsewhere in these by-laws, the remaining Directors may, at any time thereafter, elect a qualified voting member to finish out the departed Director or Officers term. 14)All Officers and Non-Officer Directors elected or selected at the annual meeting, including an elected Archdruid, shall take office as of the second High Day following that annual meeting. Article 9: The Mother Grove 1) The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall be known as the "Mother Grove" of A.D.F. 2) The members of the Mother Grove may exercise all the duties, responsibilities, and privileges normally held by the Directors of other nonprofit religious corporations. 3) The Mother Grove shall hold regular meetings at least once between each Solstice and Equinox at the offices of the Corporation in Delaware, or at such times and places as they shall appoint. Special meetings may be called by the Archdruid by giving one day's notice to each Director. 4) Regular or special meetings of the Board or any committee may be held in person, via electronic communications devices, or through the mails. These may include: telephone conference calls, a telephone or postal polling of Board Members by the Archdruid or another Officer at the Archdruid's request, the use of a computer bulletin board, etc. 5) A majority of the Mother Grove shall constitute a quorum. Each Director, as such, shall have one vote. Except as otherwise stated in these by-laws, a simple majority shall carry all motions. 6) At the Archdruid's choice, consensus decision making or Roberts Rules of Order may be adopted for all or part of any given meeting. 7) The Mother Grove shall have the general management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, subject to the veto of the Archdruid, which may be over-ruled by a three-quarters vote of the other Directors. 8) The Mother Grove shall exercise all the powers that may be exercised or performed by the Corporation under the statutes, the Articles of Incorporation, and the by-laws. 9) Minutes of every meeting of the Mother Grove shall be taken by the Scribe. Abbreviated versions shall be edited by him or her to eliminate meandering and/or possible violations of members' privacy, and published in the regular AD.F. newsletter. Any member of A.D.F. may see the unabbreviated versions of the minutes by consulting the archives or by paying for any copying and mailing expenses. 10)On those occasions when the Mother Grove is meeting with a majority of the Directors physically present in one location, such meetings shall be open to attendance by any voting members who may happen to be in the vicinity, unless matters of extreme delicacy or personal privacy may be involved, or in the case of a spiritual retreat being held by the Mother Grove. When Mother Grove meetings are being held via electronic communications devices, the Archdruid may invite one or more individuals, whether voting members or not, to attend as guests. 11)Any voting member may, through the Members' Advocate, request a position on the agenda of a Mother Grove meeting, for the discussion of matters of concern to her or him. If she or he is an electronic guest or a physical visitor to a Mother Grove meeting, said member may then address the Directors on the issues involved. 12)The Directors are authorized at their discretion to appoint from their number an executive committee of two or more persons, one of whom shall be the Archdruid, who shall be vested with the powers of the Mother Grove when the same is not in session. 13)The Mother Grove is the supreme authority in the Corporation and may, if necessary, overrule the decisions, policies, and practices of all other groups within A.D.F., including guilds, councils, special interest groups, committees, and local groves. In order to facilitate creativity, communication, and spiritual growth for all members, however, said authority is to be used lightly and rarely. 14)The maximum number of Directors shall be twelve. The minimum shall be eight. 15)Any Director may pass her/his proxy onto another for a particular meeting for one or more particular issues (but not a general proxy), verifing such in writing to the Scribe within three weeks following the meeting. Article 10: Incapacitation 1) A two-thirds majority of the Mother Grove may request any member of A.D.F. in any position of responsibility or trust, including any Director, Officer, or Archdruid, to submit to evaluation by two or more appropriate medical or psychological specialists, who shall be chosen by the Mother Grove and paid for by the Corporation. A member of the Mother Grove shall be selected to consult with said specialists and shall make a written and verbal report of ?wIhe specialists findings and her or his own. 2) Upon receipt of this report, the Mother Grove may then declare that the person so evaluated is temporarily or permanently incapacitated. Said person shall then be immediately removed from all positions of responsibility either temporarily or permanently, depending upon the declaration. 3) Restoration of her or his previous positions, whether through election, selection, appointment, or simple resumption of duties shall be contingent upon a statement by the same or other acceptable specialists that she or he is once again fit to execute her or his responsibilities. Article 11: The Archdruid 1) The Archdruid shall preside at all meetings of the Mother Grove and voting members; shall be a member, whether participating actively or not, of all committees organized by the Mother Grove; shall have normal executive control over the affairs of the Corporation; may perform all those other duties that would otherwise be performed by a corporate President; and shall be responsible for articulating the spiritual vision of A.D.F. He or she shall not be considered to be impeccable nor infallible on any topic. 2) The initial Archdruid of A.D.F., having been chosen by Divine Selection as such, and having been the original Incorporator of A.D.F., shall serve in perpetuity -- i.e., until his death, retirement, or permanent incapacitation. 3) After the death, retirement, or permanent incapacitation of the initial Archdruid, the Vice Archdruid shall become the Acting Archdruid, and shall exercise all the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of the initial Archdruid until the second High Day following the next annual meeting. 4) At said annual meeting, a new Archdruid shall be elected by a two-thirds majority of the available votes held by those members participating, with no quorum required. Should no single candidate win a two-thirds approval, the candidate with the lowest total shall be disqualified, and this process shall continue until only one candidate is left or a candidate has won two-thirds of the votes. 5) Any of the following shall be eligible to be a candidate for the office of Archdruid: (a) the Acting Archdruid; (b) one person chosen by a majority vote of the Mother Grove; (c) one person chosen by a majority of those members of the Council of Senior Druids who are not also members of the Mother Grove; and (d) any person or persons presenting a nomination petition to the Mother Grove signed by at least fifty voting members of A.D.F. There may thus be from one to three or more possible candidates. All candidates for the office of Archdruid must be individual voting members of A.D.F. in good standing, announce their willingness to take on the responsibilities of the office, and announce that Neopagan Druidism is their primary religious path. 6) The first Archdruid elected in this manner shall take office on the the second High Day following that annual meeting; and shall exercise all the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of the initial Archdruid for nine years, at which point she or he must relinquish the office to another chosen in the same manner through an election held at the annual meeting immediately preceding the end of her or his term. 7) The normal term of office for all elected Archdruids shall subsequently be nine years. No elected Archdruid may serve two terms in a row, except that if a Vice Archdruid finishes out the term of an elected Archdruid, as described later in this article, for a period of less than three years, she or he may be elected for the next full term. 8) An elected Archdruid may be recalled by a three-quarters vote of all voting members of A.D.F., at a special meeting or referendum called for that purpose. 9) An elected Archdruid who relinquishes his or her duties to the Vice Archdruid for more than three months at one time, or for more than a total of twenty-seven months in his or her term, shall be deemed to have offered to retire. The Mother Grove may accept or decline this offer. 10)If an elected Archdruid is recalled, retires, dies, or is permanently incapacitated, the Vice Archdruid shall become the new Archdruid and shall finish out the term of her or his predecessor. References in these by-laws to elected Archdruids shall then include such a person. 11)The original Archdruid upon his retirement may take the position of Archdruid Emeritus which shall entitle him to attend and speak, but not vote; at all Board and committee meetings he may choose, and to publish his thoughts in any Mother Grove publication. Article 12: The Other Officers 1 )The Officers of this Corporation shall consist of: an Archdruid, a Vice Archdruid, a Scribe, a Pursewarden, a Registrar, a Chronicler, a Preceptor, a Members' Advocate, and other such officers and agents as may from time to time be chosen. 2) The Vice Archdruid shall exercise the functions of the Archdruid in her or his absence; shall replace the Archdruid in the event of her or his recall, death, retirement, or permanent incapacitation, as described elsewhere in these by-laws; and may perform all those other duties that would otherwise be performed by a corporate Vice President. Candidates for the office of Vice Archdruid shall each be a willing member of one of the two innermost Circles then populated of an of ficial Druidic study program, as verified by the Council of Lore. 3) The Scribe shall keep a record of all votes and minutes of the proceedings of all meetings of the Mother Grove and voting members; shall give notice as required in these by-laws of all meetings; shall send proxy statements and/or mail ballots to all voting members as described in these by-laws; shall organize all incoming correspondance for reply; and may perform all those other duties that would otherwise be performed by a corporate Secretary. Candidates for the office of Scribe shall have the ability to take minutes and word processing skills, shall have a knowledge of all basic information regarding A.D.F. history, policies, polytheology, etc.; and shall have access to a computer with which to perform their duties. 4) The Pursewarden (and/or other designee as approved by the Mother Grove) shall sign all checks, drafts, contracts, and other instruments for the Corporation; shall have custody of all monies of the Corporation received or disbursed; shall deposit all monies and valuables in the name of and to the credit of A.D.F. in such banks or other financial institutions as the Mother Grove shall designate. All checks or other hnancial instruments involving sums greater than (US) $5,000 shall require the signatures of both the Pursewarden and the Archdruid. The Pursewarden shall be responsible for keeping the Corporations financial records according to generally accepted accounting principles for nonprofit corporations; will generate quarterly financial reports for the Mother Grove; and may perform all those other duties that would otherwise be performed by a corporate Treasurer. Candidates for the office of Pursewarden shall have bookkeeping and/or accounting skills. 5) The Registrar shall keep all membership and subscription records, shall have general responsibility for maintaining the database thereof; shall generate reports and mailing labels for the Mother Grove and other designated agents of A.D.F.; and shall assist grove organizers and other members with specialized mailings. She or he shall maintain strict confidentiality of the membership list according to guidelines established by the Mother Grove. Candidates for the office of Registrar shall have database management skills, and shall have access to a computer with which to perform their duties. 6) The Chronicler shall have responsibility for newsletters, journals, directories, and other publications to be issued by the Mother Grove, as determined by the Directors. He or she shall function as Editor in Chief of all Mother Grove publications; shall keep track of advertising (paid, exchange, and donated); and shall supervise physical production and distribution. Candidates for the office of Chronicler shall have editing and desktop publishing skills, and shall have access to a computer with which to perform their duties. 7) The Preceptor shall function as the head of the Council of Lore; shall supervise the creation and operation of A.D.F.s Druidic study programs; and shall be responsible for monitoring and recording the progress of individual members of A.D.F. through the Study Programs. She or he shall investigate the legal and academic requirements for creating and operating accredited institutions of higher learning, and shall use this information to help create and operate the College of Druidism. Candidates for the office of Preceptor shall be persons holding an earned Masters Degree or higher from a regionally accredited institution and having at least five years experience in the design and/or administration of programs for adult learners leading to accredited degrees, professional certification, or recognized recertification credits for occupations requiring registration, licensure, or certification. 8) The Members' Advocate shall represent individual members of A.D.F. at large, with special attention to the needs of minority factions not otherwise represented. She or he shall function as an ombudsperson, and shall be a member (whether active or inactive) of every committee organized by the Mother Grove. The Members' Advocate shall be elected on an annual basis by the voting members, as described elsewhere in these by-laws. No person may serve as Members' Advocate more than three years in a row. In the case of the death, expulsion, retirement, or permanent incapacitation of a Members' Advocate, a new Members' Advocate shall be elected to fulfill her or his term by a mail election, unless there are less than three months remaining in her/his term, with a simple majority vote of those responding being sufficient for election. 9) The normal term of office for all officers, save the Archdruid and the Members' Advocate, shall be three years. 10)In the event of a departure of an officer from the Mother Grove, as described elsewhere in these by-laws, any two offices may be temporarily held by one person simultaneously, save that the same person cannot be both the Archdruid and Vice Archdruid and that the Members Advocate shall not hold any other office. Such dual officership shall be only until another Director with the proper qualifications shall be available to take over the duties of the departed Officer. The Vice Archdruid, however, may also hold another Office until she or he succeeds to the Office of Archdruid. 11)All Officers described in the above sections of this article shall be Directors. Additional officerships of a lesser nature, such as Bookkeeper, Assistant Chronicler, etc., may be created by the Mother Grove at their discretion, and said lesser officers need not be Directors. Lesser officers who are not Directors need not be over l8 years of age if they will have no legal responsibilities for A.D.F. If under 18, they must have the signed and notarized permission of at least one parent or legal guardian. Article 13: The Board of Advisors 1) The Board of Advisors shall consist of those members of A.D.F. who are leaders in the various arts, crafts, and sciences practiced within A.D.F. They may be appointed by the Archdruid or be approved by the Mother Grove after an election by members of A.D.F. concerned with their field of expertise. 2) Appointees to the Board of Advisors shall serve until removed by the Archdruid. Approved Advisors shall serve until replaced by their successors. Any Advisor may be removed by a two-thirds vote of the Mother Grove. 3) The Board of Advisors shall individually and/or collectively advise the Archdruid, the Mother Grove, and the general membership of A.D.F., on matters relating to their fields of expertise, but shall have no political function save within the guilds or other special interest groups which may have elected them. Article 14: The Council of Lore 1) The Council of Lore shall be a standing committee, headed by the Preceptor. Its membership shall include those Directors who wish to participate, those willing members of the Board of Advisors competent to provide educational guidance, and other such members of A.D.F. as the Preceptor shall nominate and the Mother Grove shall approve. 2) Since the primary purpose of the Council of Lore shall be to provide educational guidance to those members of A.D.F. working their way through the Druidic study programs, members of the Council shall be expected to have and maintain demonstrable knowledge and skills relevant to their areas of responsibility. Whenever possible and applicable, the possession of advanced academic degrees is preferable to the lack thereof Article 15: Other Standing Committees 1) In addition to the Executive Committee and the Council of Lore, the Mother Grove shall create and staff the following committees with such members as may be willing and appropriate: the Finance & Fund Raising Committee, the Publications Committee, the Grove Organizing Committee. 2) Every standing committee shall be headed by a Director, usually an officer with related duties. 3) The Directors may at their discretion create other committees, both standing and ad hoc. Article 16: Local Groves 1) The Mother Grove shall act upon all requests for the chartering of local congregations, to be known as groves, and shall issue appropriate regulations as needed for their proper functioning. 2) In order to prevent confusion with other organizations calling their local groups "groves," all local groves of A.D.F. shall use the naming convention of "_____ Grove, A.D.F." in all brochures, posters, announcements, public letters, etc., meant to be read by nonmembers of the local groves. [Note: later amended to allow "Grove of ____, A.D.F." as well.] 3) All local groves shall comply with all relevant federal, state/provincial, and local laws regarding the operation of branch congregations of larger religious organizations; unless specifically directed by the Mother Grove to test a law in the courts. 4) All local groves of A.D.F. are entitled to the maximum amount of autonomy consistent with the survival, identity, and well being of A.D.F. as a whole. 5) Each local grove may choose any Indo-European ethnic focus, pantheon, and liturgical language of interest to the majority of its members. Non-IndoEuropean ethnic focuses, pantheons, and liturgical languages are not appropriate to official A.D.F. activities, except that local Native American traditions may be respectfully integrated into a local groves official activities, according to policies set by the Mother Grove. 6) Every local grove is expected to provide open public or semipublic worship opportunities on a regular basis, including all eight High Days. The overwhelming majority of local grove activities are to be open and inclusionary. Smaller groups may be formed within a grove, and bmay engage in closed activities, provided that no such group includes more than half of the groves members. 7) Only those persons who would qualify as voting members of AD.F., as described in Article 5, Section 1, may vote in official local grove elections, be officers of a local grove, or be counted as official grove members for chartering purposes. The Senior Druid, Scribe, and Pursewarden, as well as any other local officers who will exercise any legal responsibilities for the grove, must have passed their 18th birthday. 8) The Mother Grove shall have the power to suspend or revoke the charter of a local grove for good and sufficient cause. 9) The Archdruid shall have the power to suspend the charter of a local grove for good and sufficient cause, subject to the agreement of the Mother Grove at their next Board meeting. Article 17: Rank 1) Rank within the membership as a whole shall be a function of progress within one or more Druidic Study Programs of Circles within Circles, as shall be determined by procedures to be instituted by the Council of Lore with the approval of the Mother Grove. All such study programs shall be grounded in the attainment and maintenance of demonstrable knowledge and skills. 2) Since it is envisioned that clergy and other leaders in A.D.F. will be only a fraction of the total membership, no pressure is to be placed on members to participate in any of the Druidic study programs. 3) Any person claiming a rank related to a Druidic study program may be politely challenged to demonstrate his or her knowledge and/or skills, either by one or more examiners from the Council of Lore, or by any member of A.D.F. being asked to extend rights or privileges to said person based on his or her claimed rank. Article 18: Discrimination 1) Membership and rank in AD.F., attendance at public or semipublic AD.F. activities, and participation in any Druidic Study Program, shall not be denied to any person on the basis of race, ancestry, color, physical disability (except as mentioned elsewhere in this article), age, gender, or affectional orientation, but may be denied to individuals practicing creeds inimical to Neopagan Druidism. 2) Membership within the Mother Grove, the clergy, and other such positions of responsibility and trust as the Mother Grove may determine, shall be granted only to practicing Neopagans who are not simultaneously practicing a creed inimical to Neopagan Druidism. 3) As used herein, inimical creeds shall include varieties of conservative monotheism, atheism, demonism, racialism, or other such faiths, as shall be determined by the Mother Grove. 4) Proven communication or behavior of a virulently racist, sexist, homophobic, heterophobic, antisemitic, or otherwise bigoted manner, shall be grounds for expulsion from A.D.F., as described elsewhere in these by-laws. This does not include strong verbal statements about the theology, history, or psychological characteristics of other religions. 5) All organizers of public and semipublic AD.F. activities shall make strenuous efforts to facilitate the participation of differently-abled individuals. Nonetheless, all aspirants to any given rank or position must be able to meet all the relevant qualifications previously determined for said rank or position, unless the Mother Grove shall rule otherwise in a particular instance. Article 19: Suspension, Expulsion and Resignation of Members 1) The Mother Grove may, by a two-thirds vote, suspend or expel any member confessing to or found guilty of committing felony crimes-with-victims, as defined by civil law and current criminological opinion, or for proven and documented disruptive or abusive conduct which works directly against the aims, activities or welfare of AD.F. or its members. 2) If a member under consideration for suspension or expulsion is a Director, he or she may be suspended or expelled only by a two-thirds vote of the remaining Directors. The initial Archdruid cannot be suspended or expelled. An elected Archdruid can be suspended or expelled, but only after being recalled as described elsewhere in these by-laws. 3) "Disruptive or abusive conduct" does not include: the temperate expression of disagreement, such as public or private written or verbal criticism of AD.F. or its leadership; vigorous debate over matters of scholarship, art, spirituality, or politics; the circulation of petitions to the Mother Grove; the organizing of other members into voting blocks; nor mere rudeness, thoughtlessness, or lack of social skills. 4) Disruptive or abusive conduct does include: the spreading of slander or libel against A.D.F. or its leadership; bigoted communication or behavior as described elsewhere in these by-laws; or active efforts to persuade members to quit or to dissuade nonmembers from joining. 5) In the case of a person who was declared temporarily or permanently incapacitated at the time of his or her resignation or removal from a position of responsibility, the Mother Grove shall require a reevaluation of his or her competency similar to the process which had declared incapacity, before he or she may seek election or appointment. 6) Members may resign from membership at any time for personal reasons, and will then be eligible to rejoin A.D.F. at a later date. Any member whose membership dues lapse for a period of three months or more shall be deemed to have resigned. If a resigned member should decide to rejoin at a later date, her or his votes shall be calculated from that later date. 7) Suspended, expelled or resigned members may not hold office or act in any way as representatives of A.D.F. Expelled or resigned members have no right to receive A.D.F. publications, and may not continue to participate in Druidic Study Programs administered by A.D.F. 8) Members who have been suspended or expelled may, at the discretion of the Mother Grove, be banned permanently or temporarily from attending A.D.F. activities, including public worship. Such bans shall be published immediately in AD.F. publications. They may be published elsewhere in the case of very serious crimes. Article 20: Open Financial Records 1) All members of A.D.F. are entitled to see the accounting records. The Pursewarden shall make these available at a nominal fee for reproduction and mailing. Balance sheets and other similar summary reports shall be regularly published by A.D.F. 2) Pursewardens in local groves shall make quarterly financial reports to the Mother Grove, accounting for all income and expenses, and shall make these reports available to local grove members in a similar fashion. Article 21: Amendment and Replacement of By-Laws 1) Amendments to these by-laws may be made at any annual or special meeting or referundum, as described elsewhere in these by-laws, by a two-thirds vote of the entire voting membership; or by a twothirds vote of the Directors at any regular or special meeting of the Mother Grove. 2) The initial Archdruids lifetime term of office and immunity from recall and/or expulsion; the requirement in this article for all future sets of by-laws to contain similar language concerning replacement of by-laws; and this section of this article; may not be amended without the consent of the initial Archdruid. 3) Every twenty-seven years after the death of the initial Archdruid, at an annual meeting of the voting members, the voting members shall decide by a two-thirds vote whether to retain the current set of by-laws. Said decision shall be made after all other electoral matters have been settled. 4) Should the results be negative, a By-Laws Revision Committee shall be formed. The members of said committee shall include the newly elected Members Advocate, who shall head the committee, the newly-elected Archdruid (or if no Archdruidic election has taken place, the current Archdruid), a newly-elected Director (or a continuing one, if no Directoral election happened), three members of the Board of Advisors who are not Directors, and the Senior Druids of three local groves. The annual meeting may not be ended without these nine being selected and approved by majority vote of the voting members participating in body or proxy. 5) The By-Laws Revision Committee shall have one year to produce a proposed new set of by-laws. Halfway through that year, an early draft shall be published in the A.D.F. newsletter for comment by the membership. 6) At least six weeks prior to the following annual meeting, the By-Laws Revision Committee shall publish and distribute to the voting members a proposed new set of by-laws. At that annual meeting, alterations to the proposal shall be debated and passed by a majority vote of those participating in body or proxy. The final set of proposed new by-laws shall then be voted upon as a whole, with a three-quarters vote of the entire voting membership necessary for passage. The quorum for this vote shall therefore be seventy-five percent of all votes available to be cast. 7) Should there not be such a quorum available in body or proxy at said annual meeting, the final set of proposed new by-laws shall be submitted by the Mother Grove, by first class or overseas airmail, to the voting membership as a referundum within three weeks after the annual meeting concludes, with a six week deadline for reply. Again, a three-quarters vote of the entire voting membership shall be necessary for passage. 8) Should the new by-laws not be passed at either the annual meeting nor a referundum as just described, the old by-laws shall continue in effect for the next twenty-six years. 9) Should the new by-laws be passed at either the annual meeting or the referundum, they will take effect upon the following Samhain, completely replacing the previous set of by-laws at that time. It shall be the duty of the existing Directors to notify all appropriate civil authorities and to arrange any required elections for new officers, etc., in keeping with the spirit as well as the letter of the new bylaws. 10)All new sets of by-laws must contain an article equivelent to this one, allowing for their complete replacement every twenty-seven years at the will of the membership. Article 22: The Council of Senior Druids 1) All Senior Druids of provisionally or fully chartered groves shall be members of a Council of Senior Druids. Protogrove organizers may participate as non-voting members. 2) The Archdruid shall be an honorary member of said Council and shall be entitled to attend its meetings, receive copies of its meeting minutes and other publications, etc. She/he shall not have a vote in said Council, however, unless she/he is simultaneously the Senior Druid of a chartered grove, or unless a tie-breaking vote is needed. 3) Said Council shall be organized and run by its members and may establish its own goals and priorities, and take action to achieve them, subject to the by-laws of A.D.F. Article 23: Non-Profit Nature of the Corporation I) No part of the net earnings of the Corporation shall inure to the benefit of, or be distributable to, its members, directors, officers, or other private persons, except that the Corporation shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payments and distributions in furtherance of the purposes set forth in the Preamble and Article I of these by-laws. 2) No substantial part of the activities of the Corporation shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to influence legislation, and the Corporation shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements) any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office. 3) Notwithstanding any other provisions of the Articles of Incorporation or these by-laws, this Corporation shall not, except to an insubstantial degree, engage in any activities or exercise any powers that are not in furtherance of the purposes of this Corporation. 4) Upon the dissolution of this Corporation, the Mother Grove shall, after paying or making provision for the payment of all the liabilities of the Corporation, dispose of all the assets of the Corporation exclusively for the purposes of the Corporation in such manner, or to such organization or organizations organized and operated exclusively for Neopagan religious, educational or charitable purposes as shall at that time qualify as an exempt organization or organizations under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 as revised (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law), as the Mother Grove shall determine. 5) Any such assets not so disposed of shall be disposed of by the Court of Common Pleas of the county in which the principal office of the Corporation is then located, exclusively for such purposes or to such Neopagan organization or organizations, as said Court shall determine, which are organized and operated exclusively for such purposes. The preceeding by-laws were originally adopted by the Mother Grove of A.D.F., Inc. on July 15,1990 c.e. They have been amended and corrected since. This edition is current as of February 9, 1993 c.e. (with a couple of notes from summer of '93). For later versions, send an SASE to: ADF, Box 516, E. Syracuse, NY, USA 13057, after Feb. 1, 1994 c.e.

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