*INEVITABLE SUFFERING AND THE HOPE OF NIBBANA*
by Sayagyi U Chit Tin
1. People With a Fixed Destiny
The Buddha taught that there are two types of people with a fixed
destiny (niyata-pubbala). Those who attain at least the first stage of
Awakening are assured of eventually attaining release from all suffering.
They are called Noble Persons, Ariyas. The second catagory of people with
a fixed destiny includes those who will be unable to attain release during
their present life or during their next life. This second catagory is for
those who have either committed one or more of the five actions which have
an immediate result [in the next life] (anantarika-kamma), and for those
who hold a fixed wrong view (niyata-miccha-ditthi).
Let us examine this second catagory in more detail, because a
correct understanding of the dangers in wrong beliefs and wrong actions
can serve to inspire us to work for the goal of release from all
suffering. We shall also see that, even though people in the second
catagory cannot avoid great suffering, they are not in a hopeless
The five actions which inevitably result in great suffering in the
next life are: 1) killing one's father, 2) killing one's mother, 3)
killing an Arahat, that is to say, a person who has reached the highest
stage of Awakening and who will have no future rebirths, 4) spilling the
blood of a Buddha through an evil motive, and 5) causing a division in the
Sangha, the Order of Bhikkhus which keeps alive the Teachings of the
It is very unlikely that any of us have committed one of these
actions in this life. People who kill their parents are very rare. We are
not very likely to know an Arahat. The Buddha has attained Pari-nibbana.
And the Buddha explained to the Venerable Upali that only a fully ordained
Bhikkhu can cause a schism in the Sangha. The Buddha said that even in
the case of such a Bhikkhu, he must consciously work against the
Teachings, knowing that he is maintaining what is not the Buddha's
Teachings -- or at least have some doubts about whether creating a schism
in the Sangha is against the Teachings. If a Bhikkhu is sincerely mistaken
concerning the Teachings, he is not certain of rebirth in the lower
realms, nor is he incurable.
Fixed wrong views may seem less terrible than these five crimes. We
may look on them as merely ideas. But in Buddhism, ideas are given their
correct value. It is ideas and beliefs that lead to actions. A deep-seated
belief will lead to many wrong actions. Some wrong beliefs are less
serious than others, for they contain a grain of truth. The beliefs which
make it impossible to obtain birth in the higher planes in the next life
and thereby cut off the possibility of obtaining release from suffering
are very serious indeed.
We can sum up the worst types of wrong belief with the phrase,
"There is not." "The wrong view that there is not" is the direct
translation of the Pali term //natthika-ditthi//. This term is usually
translated into English by "nihilism." The Buddha explained this type of
wrong belief to the laymen of Sala. It includes the following beliefs:
that no good can come from giving or from making sacrifices; that good and
evil actions have no future results; that this world and the next world
are an illusion; that serving one's mother and father gives no good
results; that no beings are born spontaneously; that no one in thisworld
is living correctly and that none are able to teach others about this
world and the next world having understood them through their own higher
wisdom. Finally, this wrong belief holds that when a person dies, he
is annihilated; both wise men and fools are destroyed by death and after
death they no longer exist.
The Buddha then explained to the laymen of Sala that some people
hold the wrong view that [good or bad] actions do not exist (akiriya-
ditthi). They maintain that no matter what a person does or encourages
others to do, there is neither evil nor merit. A person can kill,
mutilate, threaten and torture; they can have others do all this. They can
cause grief and torment by stealing, committing adultery, and lying. In
this wrong view, no evil is done. And this wrong view believes no merit
comes from giving, encouraging others to give, from taming and restraining
oneself or from speaking the truth.
The third type of wrong belief explained by the Buddha is the wrong
view of no cause (ahetu-ditthi). Those who hold wrong view say that beings
are defiled or purified without cause or reason. They say that creatures
experience pleasure and pain in an arbitrary way. They do not believe that
making right or wrong efforts cause future pleasure or pain.
The Buddha emphasizes for each of these three wrong views that they
are dangerous because they lead to immoral living. Those who are convinced
of these wrong beliefs will commit wrong actions of body, speech, and
thought. They lead to being condemned by intelligent people here and now
and in the future, and they lead to rebirth in the lower realms of
suffering including the lowest of the hells, the Niraya Hell.
The commentaries point out that the destiny of a person who holds
one or more of these three wrong beliefs is only fixed for one rebirth.
But due to habit, he will tend to approve of the same beliefs in future
lives. This makes it almost impossible for him to transcend continued
An important point is made concerning fixed destiny. Unwholesome
mental states are weak compared to wholesome ones. This can be seen from
the fact that for Ariyas, it is impossible to fall back into the lower
realms of suffering. Those who are Stream-winners will have at the most
only seven new lives in the higher realms before they attain complete
liberation. No matter how bad unwholesome mental states or actions are,
there is always the possibility of eventually obtaining release. The
results of evil deeds are never final.
*2. The Story of Devadatta and Ajatasattu*
The fact that these types of wrong belief are more serious than the
five crimes can be illustrated by the stories of two persons who committed
one or more of these crimes during the time of the Buddha. They are
Devadatta and Ajatasattu.
Devadatta was the cousin and brother-in-law of the Buddha. He was
one of a group of six Khattiyans who went forth together with their
barber, Upali. This group included several of the foremost disciples:
Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu, Kimbila and Ananda. Ananda attained Stream-
entry and the others all became Arahats. But Devadatta only attained the
mental powers (iddhi) which can be achieved through concentration.
As a result of their attainments, Devadatta's companions received
many offerings from the laypeople. Devadatta became jealous, thinking that
since he came from the same clan and had ordained with the others, he
should be as highly honoured as they were. He decided he would win
favour with a layman in order to win gain and honour. He realized that
King Bimbisara was a Stream-winner whose confidence in the Buddha could
not be shaken. King Kosala was also a firm believer. So Devadatta decided
to try Prince Ajatasattu, Bimbisara's son.
Devadatta went to Ajatasattu, and through his powers, assumed the
form of a boy with snakes coiled around him. This frightened the prince
and impressed him. After that, he made many offerings to Devadatta. This
made Devadatta proud. He became obsessed with gains, honour and fame and
thought to himself, "I will lead the Sangha." As soon as he thought this,
he lost his mental powers.
Venerable Maha-Moggallana's attendant, Kakudha, had died and been
reborn as a Deva. He told Maha-Moggallana about Devadatta's idea that he
would lead the Sangha. When Maha-Moggallana informed the Buddha, the
Buddha told him to be careful in his speech; that Devadatta would betray
himself on his own. The Buddha pointed out that a teacher does not need to
be protected by his disciples if he is pure in morality, in livelihood, in
teaching the Dhamma, in exposition and in knowledge and vision. The Buddha
himself was such a teacher. Only teachers who are impure in any of these
aspects need and expect protection.
A group of Bhikkhus told the Buddha of the great offerings
Ajatasattu made to Devadatta. The Buddha warned them not to envy
Devadatta, for gains, honour and fame would bring about Devadatta's
As the Buddha said, Devadatta betrayed himself. He was so deluded,
he went to the Buddha when he was teaching a great number of people
including the king and three times requested to lead the Sangha. The
Buddha replied, "I would not hand the Sangha over to Sariputta and
Moggallana. How could I hand it over to you, a wretched person to be
vomited like spittle?"
This firm refusal upset Devadatta, who, for the first time, felt
malice towards the Buddha.
The Buddha had the Sangha carry out a formal Act of Information
against Devadatta, informing the laypeople of Rajagaha that Devadatta's
nature had been of one kind in the past, but that now it was of another
kind. From that time on, whatever he did by gesture and vocally had
nothing to do with the Buddha, the Dhamma, or the Sangha. The Buddha had
the Sangha charge Venerable Sariputta with the task of informing the
people of Rajagaha. Sariputta pointed out that he had spoken in the past
in praise of Devadatta in that very city. The Buddha asked Sariputta if
what he had said in the past had been true. When the chief disciple said
yes, the Buddha said that what he was to say now would be equally true.
Next, Devadatta decided to try to kill the Buddha. He went to
Ajatasattu and proposed that the prince kill his father in order to become
king. He said he would kill the Buddha and become a Buddha himself. We can
see how little Devadatta understood.
Ajatasattu was taken prisoner in the act of trying to kill King
Bimbisara. When his father discovered his son wanted the throne, he
stepped down and handed over the kingdom. Devadatta was not satisfied with
this, however. He urged the prince to kill his father. But no weapon
could injure Bimbisara. So the prince decided to starve his father. He was
put in prison and only the mother of Ajatasattu was allowed to visit him.
She took food which she hid in her clothes. This was discovered, so she
hid food in her hair. But this was discovered as well and she took what
she could hide in her shoes. Her last resort was to smear her body with
sweets for the king to lick. Finally, she was forbidden access to the
king. But the king continued to live by walking around his cell
meditating. The prince then had barbers cut open the king's feet, fill the
wounds with salt and vinegar and burn them with hot coals. The king showed
no resentment even at this.
A son was born to Ajatasattu and he felt great joy. He realized his
father may have felt the same way when he was born. His mother confirmed
that this was so, and he sent to have his father released from prison. But
it was too late. His father had died that very day.
Devadatta asked for Ajatasattu's aid in killing the Buddha and the
prince gave orders to his men to do whatever Devadatta asked. But the man
sent to kill the Buddha went rigid and stood still, afraid, anxious, and
alarmed when he saw the Buddha. He realized his error and confessed his
fault to the Buddha, asking for the Buddha to acknowledge his
transgression so that he might restrain himself in the future. The Buddha
taught this man the Dhamma. Devadatta had set up a series of men, each
group to kill the next in order to cover up his deed. But each group went
to look for the others, came to the Buddha and heard the Dhamma.
Devadatta decided he would have to kill the Buddha himself. He threw
a big rock down from the Vulture's Peak. But two mountain peaks came
together and crushed the rock and only a fragment of it reached the
Buddha, wounding his foot.
The Buddha told Devadatta that he had made great demerit by spilling
his blood. And he told the Bhikkhus that this was the first action of
Devadatta's that would have an immediate result in the next life. So we
can see that all the bad things Devadatta had done up to this point could
have been overcome if he had mended his ways.
The Bhikkhus were very agitated when they learned of this attempt on
the Buddha's life. But the Buddha assured them, as he had Maha-Moggallana,
that a Buddha cannot be killed and does not need to be protected by his
Devadatta tried again to kill the Buddha. He had a fierce elephant
named Nalagiri set loose against the Buddha. But the Buddha overcame the
elephant with loving kindness. With this event, the laymen learned about
Devadatta's attempts on the Buddha's life and their indignation was so
great, Prince Ajatasattu was constrained to withdraw his support.
Devadatta then asked for food from the laymen. The Buddha pointed
out that it was wrong for the Bhikkhus to solicit food and laid down a
rule to prevent such practices. This seems to have been the motivation for
Devadatta to create a schism in the Sangha. He approached several other
Bhikkhus and proposed a plan. They would ask the Buddha to lay down five
ascetic rules which they knew in advance he would refuse. In this way,
they would appear to be better, for people without a proper understanding
of the Dhamma are impressed by strict rules. Even the group of five who
accompanied the Buddha before his Awakening had been of the opinion that
the more painful the practice the better it is. So Devadatta requested
that the Buddha require all bhikkhus to live in the forest, refuse
invitations to meals, wear only robes made of rags, live under trees
rather than in buildings and refuse all meat. The Buddha replied that
bhikkhus were free to live in the forest if they wished, to eat only food
obtained on their alms rounds, and to wear only robes made from rags. But
it was a choice to be made. If they preferred, they could live near a
village, accept invitations to meals, and accept robes from laymen. Living
under a tree was permitted for eight months of the year and fish and meat
were pure as long as it was not seen, heard or suspected that the animal
had been killed on purpose in order to feed the bhikkhu.
Devadatta was overjoyed at the Buddha's refusal. When he told the
people of Rajagaha about the rules, those who were of little faith, not
believing in the Buddha, and who were unintelligent were impressed. But
those who had the opposite qualities were critical, saying, "How can this
Devadatta promote a schism in the Sangha?"
The Buddha confronted Devadatta with his actions and asked him if
what he heard was true, that Devadatta was promoting a schism in the
Sangha. Devadatta admitted that he was.
"Enough, Devadatta," the Buddha said, "do not let there be a schism
in the Sangha, for a schism in the Sangha is a serious matter, Devadatta.
Whoever, splits a Sangha that is united sets up demerit that endures for
an aeon; he is boiled in hell for an aeon. But whoever, Devadatta, unites
a Sangha that is split, he sets up sublime merit, he rejoices in heaven
for an aeon."
But Devadatta would not listen. When he saw Venerable Ananda on his
alms round in Rajagaha, he told him that from that time on he would
observe the reciting of the rules, the Patimokkha, and the carrying out of
formal acts of the Sangha on his own.
Devadatta was able to win over five hundred newly ordained Bhikkhus
who did not understand what they were doing. Sariputta and Maha-Moggallana
informed the Buddha of what had happened and he asked them, "Do you not
have compassion for these newly ordained bhikkhus?" And he sent them after
the bhikkhus. The two chief disciples went to where Devadatta had set
himself up in imitation of the Buddha. He was seated, teaching the Dhamma
to a large group, and when he saw the chief disciples coming, Devadatta
said, "You see, bhikkhus, the Dhamma is well taught by me. Even the chief
disciples of the recluse Gotama are coming to me approving of my
teachings." But one of his followers, Kokalika, warned Devadatta not to
trust the chief disciples. Devadatta was so deluded, however, he seems to
have sincerely believed in what he was doing, and he welcomed Sariputta
After teaching far into the night, Devadatta invited Venerable
Sariputta to take over, again in imitation of the Buddha. And Devadatta
laid down to rest. He was tired, forgetful and inattentive, so he
immediately fell asleep. Both Sariputta and Maha-Moggallana instructed the
bhikkhus and opened their eyes to the true Dhamma. And they led the
Bhikkhus back to the Buddha. Kokalika woke up Devadatta and told him of
what had happened. Devadatta was so upset, he spit up blood.
The Buddha told the Sangha that Devadatta was overcome by eight
conditions which controlled his mind and which meant he would be reborn in
Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon without any hope for a cure. These
eight conditions were gain, lack of gain, fame, lack of fame, honours,
lack of honours, evil desire and evil friendship. All of these conditions
should be overcome if a person is to reach the end of suffering. The
Buddha also spoke of three conditions in the same context, two of them
from the above list: evil desire, evil friendship, and stopping midway
along the path after gaining special attainments that are of little value.
So we can see how dangerous the mental powers can be for someone who has
not gained control over his cravings, and how important it is not to
overestimate our attainments at any time.
Devadatta became very ill and repented of all he had done. He asked
to be led to the Buddha. But his disciples refused at first. Devadatta
said, "Do not destroy me. I did bear hatred towards the Buddha, but he has
not entertained hatred towards me, not even so much as the tip of a hair."
The Buddha was told of his approach, but said that Devadatta would not
succeed in seeing him again. It is said that from the time he requested
the Buddha to lay down the five rules, hoping to divide the Sangha,
Devadatta could no longer come into the Buddha's presence. Devadatta was
being carried on a litter by his disciples, and when he arrived at the
monastery where the Buddha was staying, he asked to be let down so that he
could bathe. But he sank down into the earth, little by little. Just
before his head was swallowed up, he took refuge in the Buddha.
Ajatasattu was also filled with remorse. He feared that the same
thing that had happened to Devadatta would happen to him. He was unable to
discharge his duties as the king. He could not sleep at night and wandered
around trembling. He thought he could see the earth opening before him and
the flames of hell coming out. He imagined himself fastened to a bed of
burning metal with iron lances thrust into his body. He wanted to go to
the Buddha to be reconciled to him and to ask his guidance, but his
actions had been so serious he was afraid to approach the Buddha.
Ajatasattu's physician was Jivaka, who was the Buddha's physician as
well. So the king decided to use a stratagem to get Jivaka to take him to
the Buddha. One night he exclaimed that it was a beautiful night, a
perfect evening for going to see a teacher. He knew that his ministers
would encourage him to go see their different teachers. Each minister
spoke in praise of different teachers, but Jivaka, who understood what the
king wanted, remained silent as he wanted to be sure that the king desired
to see the Buddha. Finally, Ajatasattu asked Jivaka why he had said
nothing. Jivaka then praised the Buddha, and the king suggested they go to
Jivaka had said that the Buddha was residing with twelve hundred and
fifty bhikkhus, so when they approached his lodgings and not a sound was
to be heard, Ajatasattu became nervous, fearful that there was a plot
against him. "You are not playing a trick on me, are you Jivaka? You are
not deceiving me and betraying me to my foes, are you?" he said to Jivaka.
"How can there be no sound at all? How can there not be a sneeze or a
cough in such a large assembly of bhikkhus?" Jivaka reassured the king and
told him to continue on to the Buddha.
Ajatasattu went to the Buddha and exclaimed that he wished his son
Udayi could be as calm as the assembly of Bhikkhus. Venerable Buddhaghosa
comments that the king feared his son might kill him, just as he had
killed his father, and therefore wished that Udayi would become a
bhikkhu. This would explain why he then asked the Buddha about the
fruits of the life of a bhikkhu.
In his discourse to Ajatasattu, the Buddha questions the king about
what he has heard from other teachers, and Ajatasattu describes the many
wrong beliefs he has heard and has not been satisfied with. These include
the most dangerous kinds of wrong beliefs which we explained at the
beginning of our talk. Then the Buddha points out the fruits that can be
expected from leading a life based on right view. At the end of the
discourse, Ajatasattu took refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the
Sangha, and confessed his fault in killing his father. He asked for the
Buddha to acknowledge his wrong action in order that he might restrain
himself in the future.
After the king left, the Buddha told the bhikkhus that if he had not
killed his father, Ajatasattu would have attained Stream-entry through the
discourse he had just heard. Ajatasattu missed his chance to become an
Ariya, but he associated with the Buddha from then on, listened to other
discourses, and through associating with such a virtuous friend his fears
were calmed and his feelings of horror disappeared. He became a great
supporter of the Dhamma. From this we can see that even though a person
may have a fixed destiny in the next life, it does not mean that he cannot
grow in the Dhamma. We are told that the Buddha allowed Devadatta to
ordain even though he knew what he would do. This was because even if he
had remained a layman he would have committed serious crimes, but he would
have been unable to accumulate enough merit to obtain release in a future
life. As a Bhikkhu, he acquired the necessary merit before his craving got
the upper hand. He will suffer for the remainder of this aeon in hell, but
after a hundred thousand world cycles, he will become a Pacceka Buddha --
that is to say, a Buddha that does not teach others the Path to Nibbana --
and his name will be Atthissara. Ajatasattu will suffer in the
Lohakumbhiya Hell for sixty thousand years, but thanks to the good deeds
he did after hearing the Buddha's discourse, he will afterwards become the
Pacceka Buddha Viditavisesa.
*3. The Importance of Practising the Dhamma*
It is not only those who hold the worst kinds of wrong beliefs or
who commit the five worst crimes who are reborn in the realms of
suffering. A person is never sure that he has escaped the lower worlds
until he becomes an Ariya. The only way to do this is to take advantage of
the Teachings of a Buddha whenever this is possible. Being generous and
leading a moral life are necessary, but they are not enough. We can never
be sure where we will be reborn next as long as we are ordinary beings.
And we have seen in the case of Devadatta that even developing our
concentration to a very high degree will not release us from suffering. We
must in addition develop our insight. If we follow the Path in all its
fullness, then we can aspire to release in this life or in the next.
But even those who are Ariyas must continue to follow the Path if
they are to avoid unnecessary suffering. In his discourse to Ajatasattu,
the Buddha pointed out that one of the fruits of the life of a recluse was
developing the divine eye and seeing for oneself that the lower realms of
suffering are the destiny of those who are ill-conducted in body, speech
and mind, who are revilers of the Ariyas, who hold wrong views and acquire
the results of the sort of Kamma that comes from holding wrong views.
In illustrating the term "revilers of the Ariyas", Venerable Buddhaghosa
gives an interesting example. An elder bhikkhu went on his alms rounds
in a village with a young bhikkhu. At the first house they received a
spoonful of hot gruel. The elder felt ill and knowing that if he drank the
gruel before it grew cold it would help, he did not wait to drink it
later. The young bhikkhu was disgusted and remarked, "The old man has let
his hunger get the better of him and has done what he should be ashamed to
do." When they returned to the monastery, the Elder asked the bhikkhu if
he had any footing in the Dispensation. "Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhu
answered, "I am a Stream-winner." "Then friend," the Elder advised him,
"do not try for the higher paths. One whose taints are destroyed has been
reviled by you." The bhikkhu asked for the Elder's forgiveness and was in
this way restored to his former status.
So we see that even an Ariya must be careful of his actions.
Insulting an Ariya is very serious, as Buddhaghosa points out. Even if we
are not aware of another person's attainment, if they are an Ariya, we
will suffer the consequences. Insulting an Ariya will be an obstacle both
to heaven and to the Path. But it is different from the bad deeds or
beliefs with fixed destiny as it can be cured, as in the case of the
bhikkhu who insulted the Elder. Buddhaghosa says that if one is guilty of
insulting an Ariya, even if one is an Ariya oneself, one should go to the
Ariya and ask forgiveness. If the Ariya has gone away, one should go to
him or send someone to obtain forgiveness. If this is not possible, he
should go to his companions and confess his fault and ask that the person
insulted forgive him. If one does not know where the person insulted is,
one should extend his hands with palms together in the direction the Ariya
took when he left and say, "Forgive me." If the Ariya has died, he should
go to the bed where he attained final Nibbana or to where he was cremated
and ask forgiveness.
It is necessary to be constantly vigilant as we walk along the Path
to Nibbana. Even those who have already reached the stage of an Ariya can
avoid unnecessary suffering if they are careful in all their deeds, words
and thoughts. How much more important this is for those who have not yet
had a taste of Nibbana! The Path to Nibbana is hard work -- but even if it
were ten times more difficult, it would be worth making the effort.
*4. The Lesson To Be Learned*
In conclusion, let us give some verses which help us understand the
question of inevitable suffering.
He who is not free from impurity, who is lacking in self control and
truthfulness, and who puts on the yellow robe -- he is not worthy of it.
He who is free from impurity, who is well-established in morals and
with self-control and truthfulness -- he is indeed worthy of the yellow
Dhammapada vv. 9-10
He who does evil burns here (in this world); he burns after death;
he burns in both places. Thinking, "I did evil," he burns. He burns even
more when he goes to a painful existence.
He who does good is joyful here (in this world); he is joyful after
death; he is joyful in both places. Thinking, "I did good," he is joyful.
He is even more joyful when he goes to a happy existence.
Dhammapada vv. 17-18
Deeds that are unprofitable and harmful to oneself are easy. But
whatever is truly beneficial and profitable, that, indeed, is the hardest
thing of all.
Dhammapada v. 165
It is easy for a good man to do good. But it is difficult for an
evil man to do good.
It is easy for an evil man to do evil. But it is difficult for a
noble man to do evil.
Udana v. 8
Even if one should give the whole earth to an ungrateful person who is
always looking for a loophole, one can never satisfy him.
Jataka n 72
Whoever is exceedingly immoral is like the maluva vine that covers a
sal tree. He does to himself exactly what his enemy wants.
Dhammapada v. 162
Devadatta spoke the following stanza as the earth swallowed him:
With these bones, with my life, I take refuge in the Buddha --
The best of men, the God of gods, the guide of men fit to be
trained, the All-seeing One, He who is endowed with many auspicious marks.
Dhammapada Commentary I 147
Devadatta's deeds were much worse than Ajatasattu's. He created a
schism in the Sangha, made attempts on the life of the Buddha and shed the
Buddha's blood. That is why he was swallowed up by the earth and will
suffer in the lowest of the hells -- the Avici hell -- and it will only
be after a hundred thousand world cycles that he will become a Pacceka
Buddha. Ajatasattu, who killed his father, was reborn in the Lohakumbhi
hell after his death and will suffer there for sixty thousand years.
Later, he will reach Nibbana as a Pacceka Buddha. May we take the stories
of Devadatta and Ajatasattu as a warning, and the example of the continued
effort of the Ariyas as our inspiration.
Sayagyi U Chit Tin
 See, for example, A III 146f. (GS III 112).
 Vin II 204-206 (BD V 286-289)
 The following details are a paraphrase of M I 401f. (MLS II 70f.)
 These details are added to the above in Ven. Ananda's discourse to
the ascetic Sandata (M I 515 [MLS II 194])
 See the translation of the commentary and sub-commentaries to a
similar passage in the Digha-nikaya in //The Wheel//, nr.98/99, pp. 24-28.
 See Dhp-a I 38 (BL I 234)
 For Devadatta's story down to the schism in the Sangha, see Vin II
184-206 (BD V 259-289). Some details are added from Dhp-a I 38-143 (BL I
 The story of the death of Bimbisara is found in Sv I 135ff. See DPPN,
"Bimbisara" (II 286f.).
 For the rest of Devadatta's story see Dhp-a I 146-149 (BL I 239-242)
and the introduction to the Samudda-vanija Jataka (nr466).
 See the introductions to the Sanjiva Jataka (nr 150), the Samkicca
Jataka (nr530), and the Samannaphala Sutta (D I 47-85[DB I 65-95]).
 See Sv I 153.
 For Devadatta see Dhp I 147 (BL I 240); cf. Mil 107-113 (QKM I 162-
170). For Ajatasattu see Sv I 237f.
 D I 82 (DB I 91f.). Quoted in Vism, ch. XIII,para 72.
 Vism, Ch XIII,para 84-90.
 Verse 17 of the Dhammapada is associated with the story of Devadatta
in Dhp-a. The verses from the Udana and the verse from Jataka story n 72
are also mentioned in the commentary as spoken by the Buddha in connection
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*AUSTRIA*: International Meditation Centre, A-9064 St. Michael/Gurk 6,
Austria;Tel: +43 4224 2820, Fax: +43 4224 28204
Email: CIS, IMC-Austria, 100425,3423
*EASTERN AUSTRALIA*: International Meditation Centre, Lot 2 Cessnock Road,
Sunshine NSW 2264, Australia;
Tel: +61 49 705 433, Fax: +61 49 705 749
*UNITED KINGDOM*: International Meditation Centre, Splatts House,
Heddington, Calne, Wiltshire SN11 OPE, England;
Tel: +44 380 850 238, Fax: +44 380 850 833,
Email: CIS, IMC-UK,100330,3304
*USA (East Coast)*: International Meditation Centre, 438 Bankard Road,
Westminster MD 21158, USA;
Tel: +1 410 346 7889, Fax: +1 410 346 7133;
Email: CIS, IMC-USA, 74163,2452
*WESTERN AUSTRALIA*: International Meditation Centre, Lot 78 Jacoby Street,
Mahogany Creek WA 6072, Australia;
Tel: +61 9 295 2644, Fax: +61 9 295 3435
*CANADA*: IMC-Canada, 336 Sandowne Drive, Waterloo, Ontario, N2K 1V8,
Canada; Tel: +1 519 747 4762, Fax: +1 519 725 2781
*GERMANY*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Gesellschaft, Christaweg 16, 79114 Freiburg,
Germany, Tel: +49 761 465 42, Fax: +49 761 465 92
*JAPAN*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, Komatsuri-Cho 923,
Kishiwada-Shi, Osaka-Fu, 596 Japan, Tel: +81 724 45 0057
*THE NETHERLANDS*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Stichting, Oudegracht 124, 3511 AW
Utrecht, The Netherlands,
Tel: +31 30 311 445, Fax: +31 30 340 612
*SINGAPORE*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Association, 9 Penang Road #07-12,
Park Mall, Singapore 0923
Tel: +65 338 6911, Fax: +65 336 7211
*SWITZERLAND*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Gesellschaft, Greyerzstrasse 35, 3013
Bern, Switzerland;Tel: +41 31 415 233, Fax: +41 61 271 4184;
Email: CIS, 100256,3576
*USA (West Coast)*: Contact Address: IMC-USA c/o Joe McCormack,
77 Kensington Rd., San Anselmo, CA 94960,U.S.A.
Tel: +1 415 459 3117, Fax: +1 415 459 4837
*BELGIUM*: Address as for the Netherlands, Tel: +32 2 414 1756
*DENMARK*: Contact Address: Mr. Peter Drost-Nissen, Strandboulevarden
117, 3th, 2100 Kopenhagen, Denmark. Tel: 031 425 636
*ITALY*: Contact address: Mr. Renzo Fedele, Via Euganea 94, 35033
Bresseo PD, Italy. Tel: +39 49 9900 752
Published by the Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, United Kingdom
Address as above, registered charity no. 280134
TITLE OF WORK: Inevitable Suffering and the Hope of Nibbana
AUTHOR: Sayagyi U Chit Tin
AUTHOR'S ADDRESS: n/a
PUBLISHER'S ADDRESS: International Meditation Centre, Splatts House,
Heddington, Calne, Wiltshire SN11 OPE, England
COPYRIGHT HOLDER: The Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, U.K.
DATE OF PUBLICATION:
RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS: See paragraph below.
DATE OF DHARMANET DISTRIBUTION: 18 February 1995
ORIGIN SITE: BODY DHARMA * Berkeley CA 510/836-4717 DharmaNet (96:101/33)
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[end of file]