Subject A Century of U.S. Invasions Written 633 pm Feb 24, 1991 by wort in cdpmideast.gulf
Subject: A Century of U.S. Invasions
Written 6:33 pm Feb 24, 1991 by wort in cdp:mideast.gulf
From Wounded Knee to the Persian Gulf:
ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF INVASIONS
By Zoltan Grossman
The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to
1990. This guide does not include mobilizations of the National Guard,
offshore shows of naval strength, reinforcements of embassy personnel, the
use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the Drug Enforcement
Administration), military exercises, non-combat mobilizations (such as
replacing postal strikers), the permanent stationing of armed forces, covert
actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role, the use of
small hostage rescue units, most uses of proxy troops, U.S. piloting of
foreign warplanes, foreign disaster assistance, military training and
advisory programs not involving direct combat, civic action programs, and
many other military activities. Among sources used,besides news reports, are
the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine
Corps History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug. 1982), and
Ellsberg in Protest & Survive.
LOCATION/Period/Type of Force/Comments on U.S. role
SOUTH DAKOTA/1890 (-?)/Troops/300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.
ARGENTINA/1890/Troops/Buenos Aires interests protected.
CHILE/l891/Troops/Marines clash with nationalist rebels.
HAITI/1891/Troops/Black revolt on Navassa defeated.
IDAHO/1892/Troops/Army suppresses silver miners' strike.
HAWAII/l893 (-?)/Naval, troops/Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.
CHICAGO/1894/Troops/Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.
NICARAGUA/l894/Troops/Month-long occupation of Bluefields.
CHINA/l894-95/Naval, troops/Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.
KOREA/l894-96/Troops/Marines kept in Seoul during war.
PANAMA/1895/Troops, naval/Marines land in Colombian province.
NICARAGUA/l896/Troops/Marines land in port of Corinto.
CHINA/l898-1900/Troops/Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.
PHILIPPINES/l898-1910(-?)/Naval, troops/Seized from Spain, killed 600,000
CUBA/l898-1902(-?)/Naval, troops/Seized from Spain, still illegally holds
PUERTO RICO/1898(-?)/Naval, troops/Seized from Spain, occupation continues.
GUAM/l898(-?)/Naval, troops/Seized from Spain, still use as base.
MINNESOTA/l898(-?)/Troops/Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.
NICARAGUA/l898/Troops/Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.
SAMOA/1899(-?)/Troops/Battle over succession to throne.
NICARAGUA/l899/Troops/Marines land at port of Bluefields.
IDAHO/1899-1901/Troops/Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.
OKLAHOMA/1901/Troops/Army battles Creek Indian revolt
PANAMA/1901-03(-?)/Naval, troops/Broke off from Colombia, annexed Canal Zone
HONDURAS/l903/Troops/Marines intervene in revolution.
DOMINICAN REP./1903-04/Troops/U.S. interests protected in Revolution.
KOREA/1904-05/Troops/Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.
CUBA/1906-09/Troops/Marines land in democratic election.
NICARAGUA/1907/Troops/"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.
HONDURAS/l907/Troops/Marines land during war with Nicaragua.
PANAMA/l908/Troops/Marines intervene in election contest.
NICARAGUA/l9l0/Troops/Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
HONDURAS/1911/Troops/U.S. interests protected in civil war.
CHINA/1911-41/Naval, troops/Continuous occupation with flare-ups
CUBA/1912/Troops/U.S. interests protected in Havana.
PANAMA/l9l2/Troops/Marines land during heated election.
HONDURAS/l9l2/Troops/Marines protect U.S. economic interests.
NICARAGUA/1912-33/Troops, bombing/20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.
MEXICO/l9l3/Naval/Americans evacuated during revolution.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/1914/Naval/Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.
COLORADO/1914/Troops/Breaking of miners' strike by Army.
MEXICO/1914-18/Naval, troops/Series of interventions against nationalists.
HAITI/1914-34/Troops, bombing/19-year occupation after revolts.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/1916-24/Troops/8-year Marine occupation.
CUBA/1917-33/Troops/Military occupation, economic protectorate.
WORLD WAR I/19l7-18/Naval, troops/Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1 l/2 years.
USSR/1918-22/Naval, troops/Five landings to fight Bolsheviks in effort to
overthrow the fledgling socialist government.
PANAMA/1918-20/Troops/"Police duty" during unrest after elections.
HONDURAS/l9l9/Troops/Marines land during election campaign.
GUATEMALA/1920/Troops/2-week intervention against unionists.
WEST VIRGINIA/1920-21/Troops, bombing/Army intervenes against mineworkers.
TURKEY/1922/Troops/Fought nationalists in Smyrna.
CHINA/1922-27/Naval, troops/Deployment during nationalist revolt.
HONDURAS/1924-25/Troops/Landed twice during election strife.
PANAMA/1925/Troops/Marines suppress general strike.
CHINA/l928-34/Troops/Marines stationed throughout the country.
EL SALVADOR/l932/Naval/Warships sent during Marti revolt.
WASHINGTON DC/1932/Troops/Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.
WORLD WAR II/1941-45/Naval,troops, bombing, nuclear/Hawaii bombed, fought
Japan, Italy and Germany for 4 years; 1st nuclear war.
DETROIT/l943/Troops/Army puts down Black rebellion.
IRAN/l946/Nuclear threat/Soviet troops told to leave north.
YUGOSLAVIA/l946/Nuclear threat/Response to shooting-down of U.S. plane.
URUGUAY/l947/Nuclear threat/Bombers deployed as show of strength.
GREECE/l947-49/Command operation/U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.
GERMANY/l948/Nuclear threat/Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift
PHILIPPINES/l948-54/Command operation/CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
PUERTO RICO/1950/Command operation/Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.
KOREA/l951-53(-?)/Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats/U.S.& South Korea
fight China & North Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in l950, and against
China in l953. China accuses U.S. of biological warfare. Still have bases.
IRAN/l953/Command operation/CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.
VIETNAM/l954/Nuclear threat/French offered bombs to use against siege.
GUATEMALA/l954/Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat/CIA directs exile
invasion after new gov't nationalizes U.S. companies' lands; bombers based in
EGYPT/l956/Nuclear threat/Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis.
LEBANON/l958/Troops, naval/Marine occupation against rebels.
IRAQ/1958/Nuclear threat/Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.
CHINA/l958/Nuclear threat/China told not to move on Taiwan isles.
PANAMA/1958/Troops/Flag protests erupt into confrontation.
VIETNAM/l960-75/Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats/Fought South
Vietnamese revolt & North Vietnam during the Vietnamese civil war; over two
million Vietnamese casualties in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968
LAOS/1961/Command operation/Military buildup during guerrilla war.
CUBA/l961/Command operation/CIA-directed exile invasion fails.
GERMANY/l961/Nuclear threat/Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.
CUBA/l962/Nuclear threat, naval/Blockade during missile crisis; near-war
with Soviet Union.
PANAMA/l964/Troops/Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.
INDONESIA/l965/Command operation/One million-plus killed in CIA-assisted army
coup. CIA provides assassination lists to military, plus weapons.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/1965-66/Troops, bombing/Marines land during election
GUATEMALA/l966-67/Command operation/Green Berets intervene against rebels.
DETROIT/l967/Troops/Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.
UNITED STATES/l968/Troops/King shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.
CAMBODIA/l969-75/Bombing, troops, naval/Up to 2 million killed in decade
during/after U.S. invasion of Cambodia and bombing, starvation, and political
OMAN/l970/Command operation/U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion to intervene
in Omani civil war.
LAOS/l971-73/Command operation, bombing/U.S. directs South Vietnamese
invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.
SOUTH DAKOTA/l973/Command operation/Army directs Wounded Knee siege of
MIDEAST/1973/Nuclear threat/World-wide alert during Mideast War.
CHILE/1973/Command operation/CIA-backed coup ousts democratically-elected
Marxist president and installs brutal military dictatorship.
CAMBODIA/l975/Troops, bombing/Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.
ANGOLA/l976-?/Command operation/CIA assists South African-backed rebels.
IRAN/l980/Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing/Raid to rescue Embassy
hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get
involved in revolution.
LIBYA/l981/Naval jets/Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.
EL SALVADOR/l981-?/Command operation/U.S. mercenaries, military advisors,
overflights aid anti-rebel war.
NICARAGUA/l981-90/Command operation, naval/CIA funds, trains, equips and
directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.
HONDURAS/l982-?/Troops/Maneuvers help build bases near borders.
LEBANON/l982-84/Naval, bombing, troops/Marines expel PLO and back Christian
Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions.
GRENADA/l983-84/Troops, bombing/Invasion four years after socialist
revolution. U.S. installs puppet government.
LIBYA/l986/Bombing, naval/Air strikes try to topple nationalist gov't.
BOLIVIA/1987/Troops/Coast Guard and Army assists raids on cocaine region.
IRAN/l987-88/Naval, bombing/US intervenes on side of Iraq in Gulf War.
LIBYA/1989/Naval jets/Two Libyan jets shot down.
VIRGIN ISLANDS/1989/Troops/St. Croix Black unrest after storm.
PHILIPPINES/1989/Jets/Air cover provided for government against coup.
PANAMA/1989-?/Troops, bombing/Nationalist government ousted by invasion.
U.S. installs puppet government and refuses to hold new elections.
LIBERIA/1990-?/Troops/Foreigners evacuated during civil war; troops protect
CIA communications/listening post.
SAUDI ARABIA/1990-?/Troops, jets/Iraq countered after invading Kuwait.
Forces also in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.
IRAQ/1990-?/Naval, bombing, troops/Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports;
large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.
KUWAIT/1991-?/Naval, bombing, troops/Attacks on Iraqi military; effort to
return dictatorial royal family to throne.
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